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It's not a question of speaking the language. You've got to have something to use it for.

l'histoire racontée aux jeunes

When I think of all the young Louisianans I met during my trip, I get the impression that they were genuinely attached to their French-language heritage. Nevertheless, I have to admit that most of them don't speak French anymore, except for the odd phrase here and there. Most of our conversations were in English.

Yet many Louisianans regret that this heritage wasn't passed on to them and are genuinely interested in learning French. Is this interest strong enough to turn back the tide of Anglicisation? The people I met indicate that there may be room for optimism. Some people have found a way to express themselves in French in contemporary Louisiana. Entrepreneur and visionary Stephen Juan Ortega has developed a bilingual business network by offering translation services see Article 4. Each of them has succeeded because of their ability to use French. Speaking a minority language has allowed them to create new opportunities for themselves.

That's what I speak. It's my first language," he notes, after explaining how he managed to learn French despite the fact that his parents didn't. Maybe there are things that are better expressed in one language than the other!

Published close to years apart, they made similar linguistic forecasts for Louisiana. First Life in , then Harper's in predicted the demise of French! In , it is obvious that their predictions were somewhat premature!

With her statement, she links the fight for French in Louisiana to a much broader universal issue-the question of respect and understanding between peoples. I can't help but think about the Old Testament story of the Tower of Babel and how God, in order to punish mankind for building a tower to the heavens to reach Him, He creates a multitude of languages that prevent humanity from being able to communicate with each other.

When you think about it carefully though, the punishment was not so much the multiplication of languages, but mankind's inability to speak them all. Asked to imagine herself in the shoes of a traveller discovering Louisiana 50 years from now, Elaine shares her ideal: "My hope is that you'll come back to find people who don't just speak two languages, but rather three or four.

He caught the language bugat University of Miami after be friending members of Cuban community, whom head mired for their ability to navigate between American and Cuban culture whiles witching back and forth from English to Spanish. Why couldn't he do the same with French and his Cajun identity? Now I had another set of glasses. Many of the bald eagles nests are in St. Mary and Terrebone parishes.

Delta Airlines evolved from a crop dusting operation in Monroe. The first Zydeco Festival takes place in Plaisance. Arrival of the first African teacher from the Ivory Coast. The Louisiana Creole dictionary is published.

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Louisiana Today—Living in Two Languages (2)

FrancoResponsable Oui! Search Oui! History, therefore, should include documents such as the journals Thomas Jefferson ordered Lewis to keep as well as fragments of oral history; notoriously difficult to establish and subject to consensus, facts should not be opposed to narratives. Historiography needs to concern itself with the silences, the unheard, lost or strangled voices as much as with the written, official, authoritative and sanctioned documents.

Números en texto completo

While these men were creatures of their own time and cannot be faulted for doing what was normal to them, their histories, and the role that translation played in producing them, send red flags to the researcher of today who wishes to be ethically responsible. From there, perhaps avoiding pre-revolutionary troubled times in France, he went on to North Carolina to seek his fortune and set himself up as a printer, creating a small weekly, the Gazette de la Caroline du Nord in Passing the bar exam in , he self-published several of his own translations and writings before becoming a member of the North Carolina legislature in Hence the attention he pays to native populations is filtered through this colonizing gaze and limited to the troubles encountered by the French.

He ends by stating that, after twenty years of collecting material and now as an aging historian, he felt an urgent need to publish the book ibid. He later developed the Essai into the third text included here in the analysis: Histoire de la Louisiane , which he later translated in English in , something he claimed to have intended all along.

On the basis of these prefaces the researcher wonders how her own position with regards to writing history might be formulated today. What follows, and before reading the histories under study, are some of the tenets of this position. The Apologie was published in , in the Cahier des Annales , which he had founded with Lucien Febvre. As befits an apologia, Bloch aims to explain and defend history and what a good historian does. History for him is an effort towards better knowledge or a science on the move, and a young science at that:.

This statement clearly plays on the long association between history and narrative and on the need to help its development as a rational and analytical enterprise in order to go beyond facts, or underneath the factual surface as it were, and reject the poison of erudite routine and empiricism disguised as common sense. In personalizing history as Bloch does in the above quote, making it the grammatical subject, he not only avoids a direct attack on fellow historians but, more importantly, implicitly blends history and its telling, or historiography, warning the reader of the risks of doing so, or of allowing history to write itself as Barthes points out:.

But he goes on to state that the moment arrives when the scientist and the judge go their separate ways since, once the scientist has observed and explained, his job is done, whereas the judge still has to hand down his sentence. A poststructuralist well before his time, therefore, Bloch never dismissed the close link between history and narrative but was careful not to put too strong an emphasis on it, being also acutely aware of the benefits of interdisciplinarity.

Towards the end of his Apologie he gazes out of the window and writes:.

Common-place: Tales from the Vault

The historian picks up where both science and art leave off. Just like translation students learn to speed up the grieving process when, after having tried everything, they have to register a loss, the lesson to learn in history is perhaps that not everything can be explained in spite of how passionately one tries.

Du Pratz himself translated his Histoire into English, publishing that second version in London in reprinted in The subsequent thirty-three chapters that constitute the two volumes of his history follow a chronological order. As with Du Pratz, I have found that the occasional translations of certain passages in his sources helped the skillful process of compiling them into his own history. Obviously, his ability as a historian was enhanced by his linguistic skills, suggesting that translation was for him an integral part of the task he had set himself but not something he needed to reflect on.

Martin and the authors before him borrowed, translated and corrected versions preceding their own. Since Martin lists his sources at the end of each chapter, it is relatively easy to retrace the scholarly and narrative threads of his History of Louisiana. Interestingly, he also defines himself and his work against the literary norms of the times, perhaps falsely apologizing for the lower register of his narrative but not for the narrative itself.

Histoire de la Louisiane, volume 3

But this writer speaks of lions in the forests of Florida, and of a number of caciques who commanded several thousand of warriors. It is believed that those who furnished this Indian writer with the memoirs on which he wrote, were less fond of truth than of the marvellous. We will come back to de Soto in the brief translation analysis below. He chose the latter and calls it a family portrait. The following comparative analysis, therefore, seeks to illustrate some of these differences without yet pretending to answer those larger questions.

The de Soto episode—in italics in the table below—appears in the first chapter of all three texts, as can be seen in the following table. In each chapter the initial sentence reveals the difference in approach. I would argue further that the stylistic ameliorations he makes in the Histoire reflect this pre-occupation as well as his maturity as a writer and a historian.