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It was rooted in opposition to monarchy they saw as venal and corrupting to the "permanent interests of the people. To these partisans, voting was the only permanent defense of the people. Elected terms for legislature were cut to one year, for Virginia's Governor, one year without re-election. Property requirements for suffrage for men were reduced to taxes on their tools in some states. Free blacks in New York could vote if they owned enough property. New Hampshire was thinking of abolishing all voting requirements for men but residency and religion.

New Jersey let women vote. In some states, senators were now elected by the same voters as the larger electorate for the House, and even judges were elected to one-year terms. These " radical Whigs " were called the people "out-of-doors. Crowds of men and women massed at the steps of rural Court Houses during market-militia-court days. Shays Rebellion is a famous example.

Urban riots began by the out-of-doors rallies on the steps of an oppressive government official with speakers such as members of the Sons of Liberty holding forth in the "people's "committees" until some action was decided upon, including hanging his effigy outside a bedroom window, or looting and burning down the offending tyrant's home. The government of the First and Second Continental Congress, the period from September to March 1, is referred to as the Revolutionary Congress.

Beginning in , the substantial powers assumed by Congress "made the league of states as cohesive and strong as any similar sort of republican confederation in history". Hylton and again in Penhallow v. Doane's Administrators , perceived Congress as exercising powers derived from the people, expressly conferred through the medium of state conventions or legislatures, and, once exercised, "impliedly ratified by the acquiescence and obedience of the people".

The Articles of Confederation was unanimously adopted in Over the previous four years, it had been used by Congress as a "working document" to administer the early United States government, win the Revolutionary War and secure the Treaty of Paris with Great Britain. Lasting successes prior to the Constitutional Convention included the Land Ordinance of whereby Congress promised settlers west of the Appalachian Mountains full citizenship and eventual statehood. Nationalists saw the confederation's central government as not strong enough to establish a sound financial system, regulate trade, enforce treaties, or go to war when needed.

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The Congress was the sole organ of the national government, without a national court to interpret law nor an executive branch to enforce them. Governmental functions, including declarations of war and calls for an army, were supported in some degree for some time, by each state voluntarily, or not. The British refused to negotiate a commercial treaty in because the individual American states would not be bound by it. Congress could not act directly upon the States nor upon individuals. It had no authority to regulate foreign or interstate commerce.

Every act of government was left to the individual States.

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Each state levied taxes and tariffs on other states at will, which invited retaliation. Congress could vote itself mediator and judge in state disputes, but states did not have to accept its decisions. The weak central government could not back its policies with military strength, embarrassing it in foreign affairs. The British refused to withdraw their troops from the forts and trading posts in the new nation's Northwest Territory , as they had agreed to do in the Treaty of Paris of British officers on the northern boundaries and Spanish officers to the south supplied arms to Native American tribes, allowing them to attack American settlers.

The Spanish refused to allow western American farmers to use their port of New Orleans to ship produce. Revenues were requisitioned by Congressional petition to each state.

James McHenry, Forgotten Federalist

None paid what they were asked; sometimes some paid nothing. Congress appealed to the thirteen states for an amendment to the Articles to tax enough to pay the public debt as principal came due.

James McHenry

Twelve states agreed, Rhode Island did not, so it failed. Repeatedly, one or two states defeated legislative proposals of major importance. Without taxes the government could not pay its debt. Seven of the thirteen states printed large quantities of its own paper money, backed by gold, land, or nothing, so there was no fair exchange rate among them. State courts required state creditors to accept payments at face value with a fraction of real purchase power. The same legislation that these states used to wipe out the Revolutionary debt to patriots was used to pay off promised veteran pensions.

The measures were popular because they helped both small farmers and plantation owners pay off their debts. The Massachusetts legislature was one of the five against paper money. It imposed a tightly limited currency and high taxes. Without paper money veterans without cash lost their farms for back taxes. This triggered Shays Rebellion to stop tax collectors and close the courts. Troops quickly suppressed the rebellion, but nationalists like George Washington warned, "There are combustibles in every state which a spark might set fire to.

An important milestone in interstate cooperation outside the framework of the Articles of Confederation occurred in March , when delegates representing Maryland and Virginia met in Virginia, to address navigational rights in the states's common waterways.

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  • The conference's success encouraged James Madison to introduce a proposal in the Virginia General Assembly for further debate of interstate issues. With Maryland's agreement, on January 21, , Virginia invited all the states to attend another interstate meeting later that year in Annapolis, Maryland , to discuss the trade barriers between the various states. The Articles Congress received a report on August 7, from a twelve-member "Grand Committee", appointed to develop and present "such amendments to the Confederation, and such resolutions as it may be necessary to recommend to the several states, for the purpose of obtaining from them such powers as will render the federal government adequate to" its declared purposes.

    Seven amendments to the Articles of Confederation were proposed. Under these reforms, Congress would gain "sole and exclusive" power to regulate trade. States could not favor foreigners over citizens. Congress could charge states a late payment penalty fee. A state withholding troops would be charged for them, plus a penalty. If a state did not pay, Congress could collect directly from its cities and counties. There would have been a national court of seven.

    see url No-shows at Congress would have been banned from any U. Delegates from five states gathered to discuss ways to facilitate commerce between the states and establish standard rules and regulations. At the time, each state was largely independent from the others and the national government had no authority in these matters.

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    Appointed delegates from four states either arrived too late to participate or otherwise decided not attend. Because so few states were present, delegates did not deem "it advisable to proceed on the business of their mission. They desired that Constitutional Convention take place in Philadelphia in the summer of New York and others hesitated thinking that only the Continental Congress could propose amendments to the Articles.

    The "Federal Constitution" was to be changed to meet the requirements of good government and "the preservation of the Union". Congress would then approve what measures it allowed, then the state legislatures would unanimously confirm whatever changes of those were to take effect.

    Twelve state legislatures, Rhode Island being the only exception, sent delegates to convene at Philadelphia in May The Congress of the Confederation endorsed a plan to revise the Articles of Confederation on February 21, To amend the Articles into a workable government, 74 delegates from the twelve states were named by their state legislatures; 55 showed up, and 39 eventually signed. Madison outlined his plan in letters that 1 State legislatures each send delegates, not the Articles Congress.

    The Convention was to be "merely advisory" to the people voting in each state. George Washington arrived on time, Sunday, the day before the scheduled opening. Morris entertained the delegates lavishly. William Jackson , in two years to be the president of the Society of the Cincinnati , had been Morris' agent in England for a time; and he won election as a non-delegate to be the convention secretary.

    The convention was scheduled to open May 14, but only Pennsylvania and Virginia delegations were present. The Convention was postponed until a quorum of seven states gathered on Friday the 25th. The rules of the Convention were published the following Monday. These were the same delegates in the same room, but they could use informal rules for the interconnected provisions in the draft articles to be made, remade and reconnected as the order of business proceeded. The Constitutional Convention voted to keep the debates secret so that the delegates could speak freely, negotiate, bargain, compromise and change.

    Yet the proposed Constitution as reported from the Convention was an "innovation", the most dismissive epithet a politician could use to condemn any new proposal. It promised a fundamental change from the old confederation into a new, consolidated yet federal government.

    The accepted secrecy of usual affairs conducted in regular order did not apply. It became a major issue in the very public debates leading up to the crowd-filled ratification conventions. Despite the public outcry against secrecy among its critics, the delegates continued in positions of public trust. State legislatures chose ten Convention delegates of their 33 total for the Articles Congress that September.

    Every few days, new delegates arrived, happily noted in Madison's Journal. But as the Convention went on, individual delegate coming and going meant that a state's vote could change with the change of delegation composition. The volatility added to the inherent difficulties, making for an "ever-present danger that the Convention might dissolve and the entire project be abandoned.

    Although twelve states sent delegations, there were never more than eleven represented in the floor debates, often fewer. State delegations absented themselves at votes different times of day. There was no minimum for a state delegation; one would do. Daily sessions would have thirty members present. Members came and went on public and personal business. The Articles Congress was meeting at the same time, so members would absent themselves to New York City on Congressional business for days and weeks at a time. But the work before them was continuous, even if attendance was not.

    The Convention resolved itself into a "Committee of the Whole", and could remain so for days. It was informal, votes could be taken and retaken easily, positions could change without prejudice, and importantly, no formal quorum call was required. The nationalists were resolute.