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A feeling of Brazilianess became a central theme at that time and came to be one of the highlights of the modernist movement. The Week, a suggestion of the painter Di Cavalcanti to Paulo Prado, was a destructive blow against the old order. Although Brazilian modernism was also influenced by some of the basic ideas of the European vanguards, there is a significant difference between this movement and the previous movements of Brazilian literature and arts.

Whereas the latter ones imported European ideas and artistic practices and merely adapted them to the new environment, the modernist writers appropriated some of the basic principles of the European vanguards of the early twentieth century—especially futurism, cubism, Dadaism, expressionism and surrealism—blended them all together and produced a movement which was not only a result of this mixture, but also a dialogue between this new product and the previous Brazilian tradition, particularly of the Romantic period.

It is true that Brazilian modernism has many aspects in common with other contemporary movements of world literature that were also designated as modernist. But it also presents important differences in regard to them. If we take as an example the Anglo-Saxon modernism, two differences immediately come to mind: the relationship between the aesthetic and the political elements, and that between the erudite and the popular vein.

Whereas in Anglo-Saxon modernism there is a dichotomy between the aesthetic and the political discourses, with the former not supposed to express any type of political commitment, in Brazilian literature the two elements not only coexist but also complement each other. And the same can be said as far as the erudite and the popular elements are concerned. In this country, that which prevailed was, on the contrary, a struggle against the formal sophistication of previous literary movements, such as the Parnassian and symbolism, which turned into a real apology of a colloquial and regional type of language and of popular forms and genres, marked by specific tones.

As regards Spanish-American modernism, it is worth remembering that this is a nineteenth-century movement, equivalent in chronological terms to Parnassianism and symbolism in Brazil. A few years after its irruption, the modernist movement began to divide into groups and divergent currents, and several manifestos, program-articles, prefaces and even books of doctrine-poetry were published. But the movement lasted until the mid-twentieth century and is usually subdivided into three main generations, those of , , and The first was a revolutionary generation both in art and in politics.

Its objective was the demolition of a fictitious social and political order and of a type of art and literature produced by imitation of foreign models. The second generation reaped the results of the preceding one, replacing the destructive nature with a constructive intent for the recomposition of values and the configuration of the new aesthetic order. Poetry followed the 12 task of purification of means and forms that had been earlier initiated, and prose broadened its area of interest to include new preoccupations of a political, social, economic, human and spiritual nature.

The third generation is known especially for a greater precision in form, an effort at disciplinary recuperation, emotional containment and severity of language. In prose, there is an attempt to revitalize the short story by means of new experiments on the level of language. Formerly, Brazilian intellectuals had lived with their eyes turned towards Europe.

With modernism, this mentality changed, encouraging artists to experience their native land and give it artistic representation. European contributions continued to be appreciated, but came to be approached with a critical gaze and to be selected rather than blindly imported as before. Furthermore, these European elements were not the only ones appropriated by the movement. This attention to Brazilian land and environment brought a new preoccupation with regionalism, traditionalism, and folklore.

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Indian and African traditions, regional legends, and popular language with Indian and African contributions quickly became common in literature, both in poetry and in fiction. The vanguards, initiated in different parts of Europe, reached Brazil in the second decade of the twentieth century, and found therein a fertile ground due to the questioning of the old aesthetic principles that was taking place, represented by naturalism and Parnassianism. However, the differences existing among the vanguards themselves, and the way they were seen and incorporated into Brazilian reality gave birth to a movement of a multifaceted sort, consensual only in its common objective: the renovation of the arts.

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The author studies in detail the five main vanguards that influenced the modernist movement—futurism, cubism, expressionism, Dadaism and surrealism—by stressing their points in common with examples from both Brazilian and the European literature of different countries. It concludes that the Brazilian modernism of the heroic phase, as well as the European vanguards, left an important lesson for posterity: that the history of a people is better accomplished by means of an open and free dialogue of trends seen from a comparative and globalized perspective.

In his thematic spectrum, there is an emphasis on the themes that deal with the relation between the particular and the universal, the local and the global, the region, the nation and the world, as well as on the language particularities in each one of these instances. His essay embraces the three generations of modernist poets in Brazil and offers an overview of the poetic production of this movement, as much as the interrelations between them.

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The second generation of modernists is here represented by Jorge Amado due especially to the impact he had on the international scenery. To these factors, which she considers fundamental, there can also be added his repeated invocations of mass culture and his adherence to everyday reality, as well as the low importance he gave to linguistic experiments. Jorge Amado has always expressed a strong preoccupation with the social and political issues of his time, even after he abandoned the Communist Party, and his interest in the cultural values of his people led him to produce a highly inclusive type of literature that incorporated contributions coming from all social classes and ethnic groups of Brazilian society, especially the Afro-Brazilian culture.

This wider regionalist perspective is part of a concept of reality as something multiple and constantly changing, which is represented in his fiction by means of a form that tries to apprehend it in as many of its aspects as possible. As well as literature in general, theater in Brazil began with the Jesuit priests, playing an important role in the process of conversion and catechism, and, after a period of hibernation, it reappeared in Romanticism under the form of the drama.

Later on, in the period of realism and naturalism, it experienced an important development, but it was only around , when the modernist movement began to dominate the scene, that theater went through a new flourishing period, establishing its prestige among the public. The innovations introduced by modernism were seen not only in the aspects of dramatic creation itself, but also of set designing, staging, and the training of actors.

New techniques were explored, new light and sound devices were used, and several schools for the formation of actors appeared, endowing the theater with a professional stamp it had never enjoyed before. Among the playwrights of the time, the main tendency was towards a confluence of foreign experiences with Brazilian themes, be these of a social, historical or cultural order.

Brazilian Transcreation and World Literature

The greatest expression of this new moment of Brazilian theater was Nelson Rodrigues, who broke with traditional conventions and indulged in themes hitherto forbidden, such as that of sexual relations. She then proceeds to relate this type of theater to the plurality of contemporary art in general.


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At this point, she mentions Nelson Rodrigues, whose works are a significant example of this relationship, and, after focusing on the role of Brazilian theater in the international scene, she centers her attention on the works of this playwright, considered to be the most innovative of Brazilian theater in the twentieth century. From the second half of the twentieth century to the present, the Brazilian literary scene has been characterized by a plurality of trends which on the one hand follow the lines established by the modernist movement and on the other hand express the multiple set, based on micro-narratives, that has been often designated by critics as postmodern.

In both cases, however, foreign imports are now combined with a consciousness of Brazilian cultural aspects, and the result has been the emergence of different currents, all marked by a kind of dialogue between a foreign influence and a local touch. Such is the case in poetry of movements like concretism, neoconcretism, praxis poetry, postal art, and tropicalism, just to cite 17 the most well known, and, in prose writing, of journalistic fiction, testimonio , the excursions into the fantastic, and the self-conscious, particularly feminine line of narrative.

All these currents—to which can be added more recently the production of the so-called minority groups, like the Indian, the African and those resulting from nineteenth and twentieth-century European and Asian immigration—crammed with aspects like the constant presence of the media, the fragmentation of the text, the abundant use of a polyphony of voices, an emphasis on stylistic eclecticism, a strong intertextuality, parody and the frequent use of metalanguage, are efforts to represent the new lifestyle of a country where sophisticated computers are found together with a high measure of misery and illiteracy.

She begins with a reflection of the differences between modernism and the postmodern condition, by citing some of the most well-known theories on the topic, and then sets up a series of comparisons between Brazilian and world literature to show how postmodernism is manifested in different ways in these productions. She then calls attention to the importance that postmodernism had in breaking with the genre categories, and especially for allowing the development of the literary production of minority groups, both ethnic and sexual.

In conclusion, the author stresses the fragmentation that has occurred from the s to the present, and refers to the role of the Internet in this sense. Still great condition. Stock photos may not look exactly like the book. Seller Inventory Book Description Martin Claret, Satisfaction Guaranteed!


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