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What do you notice here? Do you see all of the geographical territory of the U. These congregations reflect a total membership of approximately , What we see here is the way these little congregations blanket the geographical territory of the U. Marine biologists are discovering that one of the most effective ways of restoring and maintaining the health of ocean ecosystems is to create many small marine protected areas MPAs tied to local communities who understand the history, culture and idioms of the place, rather than try to create a few large MPAs. The networks created when these small communities are working side by side lead to large areas of healthy ocean ecosystems.

One of our goals is to serve as one of the connecting threads that tie small congregations together for communication, collaboration and conversation. God is still using the small church to turn the world upside down. In the global south and east, where Christianity is exploding, it is the small church tied to a particular place and people but connected to the larger Body of Christ, that is shining the light of Jesus into their communities.

The following summer, rather than returning this party to the main base, Scott transferred it to a geologically interesting site farther south on the coast for a planned month of research, which extended over a second winter when ice blocked the Terra Nova ship from extracting the group.

Although it made notable findings, the party contributed nothing to the polar dash. Edward Wilson, the Terra Nova's scientific director, caused another costly diversion by taking a kilometre winter journey to an Emperor penguin rookery. Having visited the site during the Discovery expedition, he wanted to study the birds during the midwinter nesting period. It nearly killed the three men involved, but two of them, Wilson and H. Bowers, subsequently accompanied Scott to the pole. A full regime of research continued through the Antarctic winter and into the spring.

A month before setting off on the polar journey, Scott himself led a kilometre trek into the Trans-Antarctic Mountains to measure the movement of the Ferrar Glacier. Critics have chided Scott for such actions, which inevitably handicapped him in the race with Amundsen. If the [polar] journey comes off, nothing, not even lost priority at the Pole, can prevent the Expedition ranking as one of the most important that ever entered the Polar regions.

Of course, the polar journey did not succeed. The Norwegians beat the British to the South Pole and Scott and his four companions died on the way back. The weather was unseasonably cold and the men steadily weakened. Nevertheless, near the end, they stopped to collect fossils from beside the Beardmore Glacier. Wilson had spotted Glossopteris impressions, which geologists on all the British expeditions had sought in hopes of proving that the southern continents were once linked to Antarctica.

Turning the world upside down

Scott's party hauled these specimens to the final camp, where they were later found with the dead men, their diaries and their field notes. By the time the findings from the Terra Nova expedition had been fully analysed back in Britain, scientists had gained a new appreciation of the Antarctic's global significance. With the voyage of the British research ship Challenger in the s, they began to realize that undercurrents from the Southern Ocean regulate the marine life and the temperature of the other great oceans, and that air currents from the far south influence the climate farther north.

Data collected by Antarctic explorers during the early twentieth century, in large part by scientists travelling with Shackleton and Scott, confirmed that Antarctica's vast glaciers, ice sheets and ice shelves — much more than the Arctic's thin ice cap — influence the global environment.


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In doing so, they turned the world upside down and put Antarctica on top. Correspondence to Edward J. Reprints and Permissions. Larson, E. Turning the world upside down. Nature , 29—31 doi Download citation. By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.

Turning the World Upside Down

If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects History Solid Earth sciences. Download PDF. Terra Nova: Robert Scott's ill-fated expedition opened up the Antarctic to scientific exploration. Credit: H. Terra Nova science clockwise from top : photographer H.

Author information Affiliations Edward J. Press, Edward J.

Turning the world upside down | Nature

Larson Authors Search for Edward J. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. About this article Cite this article Larson, E. Comments By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.

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